Bariatric surgery, referred to as weight loss surgery, is the procedure for weight loss for people who are severely obese. When fat reduction methods such as diet management and physical exercise are not effective, bariatric surgery is the best substitute to lose and manage weight in a planned manner.
Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, causing a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. Bariatric procedures often results in hormonal changes. The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Each surgery has its own advantages and disadvantages. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).
Who should consider Bariatric Surgery
Candidates of bariatric surgery should qualify the following conditions:
A candidate should have a BMI (Body Mass Index) in between 35-40. The candidate should also possess an obesity-related condition of diabetes mellitus, severe sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. The calculation of BMI is done by dividing the weight of a person in kilograms by height in meters squared.
Apart from these, a Bariatric surgery candidate should also be:
Willing to exercise for at least ninety minutes each week.
Overweight for more than 5 years.
Is able and willing to make lifestyle and eating habit changes.
Have had a short-term success with earlier serious attempts for weight loss.
Free from auto-immune disease.
Types of Bariatric Surgery
Gastric Sleeve (Sleeve Gastrectomy)
Gastric Sleeve surgery, also referred to as Sleeve Gastrectomy, is primarily performed to remove about 85% of the stomach. The rest 15% of the original capacity of the stomach is left for shaping in the form of a sleeve. By restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold. No foreign objects are required, therefore a patient recovers in a relatively short hospital stay.
Gastric Bypass Surgery
The purpose of this procedure is to separate the stomach into two unequal sections. Only 5 percent of the stomach area is left for food consumption. The food gets emptied from this small stomach pocket in the upper intestine at the time of digestion. This procedure creates 60 to 80 per cent excess weight loss.